What Are Five Environmental Factors That Can Cause Mutations?

What are the 2 main types of mutations?

The two main types of mutations are gene mutations, which can either be point mutations (happening in a single or a few nucleotides) or frameshift mutations (when a nucleotide or nucleotides are inserted or deleted), and chromosomal mutations, which involves changes in the structure or number of the entire chromosome, ….

What are examples of mutations?

Types of Changes in DNAClass of MutationType of MutationHuman Disease(s) Linked to This MutationPoint mutationSubstitutionSickle-cell anemiaInsertionOne form of beta-thalassemiaDeletionCystic fibrosisChromosomal mutationInversionOpitz-Kaveggia syndrome5 more rows

How do physical mutagens cause mutations?

The chemical or physical agents that cause mutations are called mutagens. Examples of physical mutagens are ultraviolet (UV) and gamma radiation. … For example, exposure to UV light can result in the formation of a covalent bond between two adjacent thymines on a DNA strand, producing a thymine dimer (Figure 19.5. 2).

What are some examples of factors that cause mutations?

Mutations arise spontaneously at low frequency owing to the chemical instability of purine and pyrimidine bases and to errors during DNA replication. Natural exposure of an organism to certain environmental factors, such as ultraviolet light and chemical carcinogens (e.g., aflatoxin B1), also can cause mutations.

What are 3 examples of things in the environment that could cause mutations?

Anything in the environment that can cause a mutation is known as a mutagen. Examples of mutagens are pictured in the Figure below. Examples of Mutagens. Types of mutagens include radiation, chemicals, and infectious agents.

What are 5 mutagens?

Common mutagens include: bromine, sodium azide, psoralen, benzene, x-rays, gamma rays, alpha particles, ultraviolet radiation, etc.

How do mutagens cause mutations?

How Mutagens Work. Mutagens affect DNA in different ways. Some mutagens, such as nitrogen mustard, bind to a base and cause it to make a different amino acid. These mutagens cause point mutations, because they change the genetic code at one point, so changing a protein’s amino acid sequence.

What environmental factors can cause mutations?

Mutations can also occur as the result of exposure to environmental factors such as smoking, sunlight and radiation. Often cells can recognize any potentially mutation-causing damage and repair it before it becomes a fixed mutation. Mutations contribute to genetic variation within species.

Which two genetic disorders are caused by mutations?

But the mutations we hear about most often are the ones that cause disease. Some well-known inherited genetic disorders include cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disease, phenylketonuria and color-blindness, among many others. All of these disorders are caused by the mutation of a single gene.

What are effects of mutation?

Harmful mutations may cause genetic disorders or cancer. A genetic disorder is a disease caused by a mutation in one or a few genes. A human example is cystic fibrosis. A mutation in a single gene causes the body to produce thick, sticky mucus that clogs the lungs and blocks ducts in digestive organs.

What is a silent mutation?

Silent mutations are base substitutions that result in no change of the amino acid or amino acid functionality when the altered messenger RNA (mRNA) is translated. For example, if the codon AAA is altered to become AAG, the same amino acid – lysine – will be incorporated into the peptide chain.

What is an example of a missense mutation?

With a missense mutation, the new nucleotide alters the codon so as to produce an altered amino acid in the protein product. EXAMPLE: sickle-cell disease. … Thus the 6th amino acid in the chain becomes valine instead of glutamic acid. ANOTHER EXAMPLE: Patient A with cystic fibrosis (scroll down).

How do mutations cause disease?

By changing a gene’s instructions for making a protein, a mutation can cause the protein to malfunction or to be missing entirely. … A condition caused by mutations in one or more genes is called a genetic disorder. In some cases, gene mutations are so severe that they prevent an embryo from surviving until birth.

Is UV sunlight a mutagen?

Ultraviolet (UV) light has strong genotoxic effects to pro- duce DNA damage, induce mutations, and, in the worst case, cause the development of tumors. The major natural source of UV is the sun, and solar UV is known to be one of the main causes of human skin cancers.

What is mutation and its types?

The types of mutations include: Missense mutation. This type of mutation is a change in one DNA base pair that results in the substitution of one amino acid for another in the protein made by a gene. Nonsense mutation. … A deletion changes the number of DNA bases by removing a piece of DNA.

What are the 4 types of mutation?

There are three types of DNA Mutations: base substitutions, deletions and insertions.Base Substitutions. Single base substitutions are called point mutations, recall the point mutation Glu —–> Val which causes sickle-cell disease.Deletions. … Insertions.